En savoir plus sur l’agriculture

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OGM : de quoi s’agit-il? Peuvent-ils être consommés en toute sécurité? Qu’est-ce que l’agriculture biologique? Comment les animaux comme les poulets ou les bovins sont-ils élevés?

snapAG offre aux élèves et aux étudiants des ressources sur des sujets d’actualité liés à l’industrie agricole, comme les produits biologiques, les biotechnologies, les OGM, l’élevage, et plus encore. 

Explorez les tendances de l’agriculture au Canada en parcourant les rubriques ci-dessous.

Genetics and Plant Breeding

Genetics and Plant Breeding

Summary:  DNA is the recipe for life!  Differences in the genetic code are the reason why one person has blue eyes rather than brown, why some people are susceptible to certain diseases, why birds only have two wings, and why giraffes have long necks.

What is DNA?

Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is a molecule that contains the intructions an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce.  DNA has a distinctive double-helix shape, like a twisted ladder.  The "rungs" of the ladder are made of four types of nitrogen-based molecules referred to by the letters A, T, G and C.  These are the letters to write the "instruction book" of life itself.  Combinations of these letters -genes- carry instructions for traits from height to hair colour, from seed size to frost tolerance, basically everything an organism needs to live and reproduce.  

These instructions are found inside every cell, and are passed down from parents to their children.  This transmission of all or part of an organism's DNA helps ensure a certain level of continuity from one generation to the next, while still allowing for slight changes that contribute to the diversity of life.

In simple terms

DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and is one of the two types of nucleic acid in cells. We're made up of many, many cells that we can't see and each cell has a job.  Some cluster of cells make up our muscles, some make up our bones - and all together they make our bodies!  But how does each cell know what to do?  That's where DNA comes in.  It tells the cells what to do.

DNA is like the boss of the company.  It gives all cells instructions that then passes down in the form of "codons", which is a three-block code.  These codes are made from a string of four different letters which have best friends they favour and prefer to hold hands with.  A likes T and G likes C and when put together they become instructions for the cells.  (Excerpt taken from redtri.com, retrieved on November 20, 2018)

Les références

References:

DNA is DNA:

 Genetics in common between humans and six organisms (Stanford at The Tech Museum of Innovation)

Clarification of “shared genes” concept with regard to pigs and humans (ABC Science Q&A, animal geneticist Professor Chris Moran from the University of Sydney's Faculty of Veterinary Science)

Bonobos Join Chimps as Closest Human Relatives (Science)

 

Wheat:

Encyclopaedia of Earth

Meet the Ancestors (of the past, present and future) (John Innes Centre, UK)

Why Wheat Matters - International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT)

Agriculture in 2050: Recalibrating Targets for Sustainable Intensification (BioScience)

IWGSC Reference Wheat Genome (International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium)

U of S researchers help lead wheat genome sequencing breakthrough (UofS)

Small group scoops international effort to sequence huge wheat genome (Nature)

Land under cultivation:

2016 Census of Agriculture (The Daily, StatsCan)

2016 Census of Agriculture (StatsCan)

Soil and land (Agriculture and Agri-food Canada)

 

Heritage varieties:

Wheat research yields plenty of attention (U of S)

Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway.

Plant Gene Resources of Canada – seed and genetics library.

 

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