Types of Genetic Engineering
A transgenic plant is one that contains a gene or genes which have been introduced artificially into the plant's genetic makeup using a set of several biotechnology techniques collectively known as recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology.
Cisgenics involves only genes from the same species or a cross-compatible species, a process that could otherwise happen—though over a considerably longer period of time—through breeding or other natural methods.
Cisgenics and transgenics can use the same genetic engineering techniques the only difference being the source of the genetic material.
The Arctic Apple® used a cisgenic technique called RNA interference or gene silencing to “turn off” the genes that make apples turn brown.
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science Volume 149, 2017, Pages 1-26, Chapter One - Genome Engineering and Agriculture: Opportunities and Challenges
(Nicholas J.Baltes, JavierGil-Humanes, Daniel F.Voytas ) Retrieved: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877117317300431
Cisgenic plants are similar to traditionally bred plants: International regulations for genetically modified organisms should be altered to exempt cisgenesis (Henk J Schouten, Frans A Krens, and Evert Jacobsen) Retrieved: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525145/
Encyclopedia of Genetics, Gene Silencing, 2001 (W.Filipowicz J.Paszkowski)
From DNA to Beer: Harnessing Nature in Medicine and Industry (NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine)
Please say no to “GMO” (Dr. Kevin Folta on Medium)
What consumers don’t know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs (The FASEB Journal)
The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop (PNAS)
10 Amazing GMOs (Dr. Carol Lynn Curchoe on Medium)
Losses due to pests (Institute for Plant Diseases, Germany)
Crop losses from pests (Journal of Agricultural Science)
Wait nearly over for Golden Rice (United News of Bangladesh)
Golden Rice moving forward in Philippines (Cornell Alliance for Science)